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Table of Contents
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)

1 PhD Scholar, Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
2 Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
3 SRI Professor, School of BioSciences, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, Taylor's University Malaysia, Malaysia

Date of Web Publication16-May-2018

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2395-1540.232542

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How to cite this article:
Sahathevan S, Hock KB, Mat Daud ZA, Karupaiah T. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). J Renal Nutr Metab 2018;3:12

How to cite this URL:
Sahathevan S, Hock KB, Mat Daud ZA, Karupaiah T. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). J Renal Nutr Metab [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 25];3:12. Available from: http://www.jrnm.in/text.asp?2018/3/1/12/232542

Body composition generally involves measuring lean body mass or fat-free mass and fat mass. Fat mass stores energy in the form of adipose tissue while lean body mass includes muscle and visceral proteins, water, protein, glycogen and minerals[1],[2]. Lean body mass, which reflects the somatic protein store, is commonly used as a nutritional status measure for dialysis patients[1]. In terms of body composition, a dialysis patient with malnutrition is characterized by increased loss of weight and depletion of both muscle and fat tissue[3],[4]. Chronic kidney disease and other chronic disease state patients with higher muscle mass are reported to have longer survival[5]. The gold standard of lean body mass is measured by total body water. Although this method provides accurate results, it is expensive and not practical to be used in clinical setting for routine monitoring. Other indirect methods for measuring body composition are creatinine kinetics, anthropometrics, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which are preferably used in dialysis patients[1],[2]. DEXA is currently the best non-invasive method to measure body composition but it is costly and has limited availability[4]. In view of a more practical, simple, user-friendly and suitable method to be used in a clinical setting, anthropometry and BIA are widely used in the dialysis population[2] Therefore, assessing muscle mass, fat mass, history of weight loss and body mass index are easy methods of determining one's nutritional status[4].

We have had the experience of employing the portable Body Composition Monitor (BCM) device (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) in the ongoing PATCH study. This body composition model is able to provide patient data on hydration status, lean tissue mass and fat mass. The use of this tool in assessing the hydration status in Malaysian HD population has been reported elsewhere[6]. BCM measurements are carried out with the patient resting in the supine position for approximately 15 minutes prior to the measurement.

  References Top

Dong, J., Li, Y.J., Lu, X.H., Gan, H.P., Zuo, L. & Wang, H.Y. 2008. Correlations of lean body mass with nutritional indicators and mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Kidney International 73: 334–340.  Back to cited text no. 1
Dumler, F. & Kilates, C. 2000. Use of bioelectrical impedance techniques for monitoring nutritional status in patients on maintenance dialysis. Journal of Renal Nutrition 10(3): 116-124.  Back to cited text no. 2
Avesani, C.M., Carrero, J.J., Axelsson, J., Qureshi, A.R., Lindholm, B. & Stenvinkel, P. 2006. Inflammation and wasting in chronic kidney disease: Partners in crime. Kidney International 70: S8–S13.  Back to cited text no. 3
Locatelli, F., Fouque, D., Heimburger, O., Drüeke, T.B., Cannata-Andía, J.B., Hörl, W.H. & Ritz, E. 2002. Nutritional status in dialysis patients: A European consensus. Nephrology Dilaysis Transplant 17: 563-572.  Back to cited text no. 4
Patel, S.S., Molnar, M.Z., Tayek, J.A. Ix, J.H., Noori, N., Benner, D., Heymsfield, S., Kopple, J.D., Kovesdy, C.P. &Kalantar-Zadeh, K. 2013. Serum creatinine as a marker of muscle mass in chronickidney disease: results of a cross-sectional study and reviewof literature. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 4: 19–29.  Back to cited text no. 5
Mamat, R., Kong, N. C., Ba'in, A., Shah, S. A., Cader, R., Wong, V., Mohd, R., Abdul Gafor, A.H., & Ismail, R. 2012. Assessment of body fluid status in hemodialysis patients using the body composition monitor measurement technique. Journal of Clinical Nursing 21: 2879-2885.  Back to cited text no. 6


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