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Table of Contents
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8

Dietary assessment methods

1 PhD Scholar, Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
2 PhD Scholar, Nutrition and Food Science Department, College of Liberal Art and Science, Wayne State University
3 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Nutrition and Food Science Department, College of Liberal Art and Science, Wayne State University
4 Associate Professor, Nutrition and Food Science Department, College of Liberal Art and Science, Wayne State University
5 Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
6 SRI Professor, School of BioSciences, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, Taylor's University Malaysia, Malaysia

Date of Web Publication16-May-2018

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2395-1540.232539

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How to cite this article:
Hock KB, Tallman D, Kaur D, Mat Daud Z, Khosla P, Karupaiah T. Dietary assessment methods. J Renal Nutr Metab 2018;3:8

How to cite this URL:
Hock KB, Tallman D, Kaur D, Mat Daud Z, Khosla P, Karupaiah T. Dietary assessment methods. J Renal Nutr Metab [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Aug 9];3:8. Available from: http://www.jrnm.in/text.asp?2018/3/1/8/232539

Dietary assessment is essential as it provides insights into a patient's nutrient intakes relating to nutritional adequacy or nutritional toxicity. In clinical practice, the dietary data is an important component of overall nutrition status assessment as recommended in medical nutrition therapy, which allows personalised patient-centered care. For research purpose, the dietary data is useful to establish relationships between nutrient intakes and clinical outcomes, and ultimately generate stakeholder reference for setting guidelines.

Various self-reporteddietary assessment tools are available, including 24-hoursrecall, 3- to 7-day dietary records, and food frequency questionnaire; each has its own pros and cons. The 24-hours recall is easy, convenient, and fast to assess dietary information. However, it does not represent typical intake and lacks the ability to capture daily variations in food groups and micronutrient intake, especially in dialysis patients whose food dietary intakes vary between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Therefore, a 3-day dietary record inclusive of a dialysis day, a weekend day and a non-dialysis day is recommended by clinical practice guidelines to assess dietary intakes of dialysis patients as it provides a better understanding on patients' energy and protein intakes. The 7-day dietary record is able toassessmore variations of dietary intake over a longer period, but it imposes a respondent burden on patients. Both 24-hours recall and 3- to 7- day dietary records are only able to collect short-term dietary information. However, all dietary records rely on the literacy ability of the patient or their diligence in completing the records. Contrarily, thefood frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is able to assess dietary intakes over a longer period of time. However, the FFQ requires patients to recall food intakes over at least one month which is an obstacle in elderly patients. Further the FFQ instrument must be adapted for cross-culture applications.

Dietary intake can be also interpreted in terms of diet quality (DQ) as well as dietary patterns (Ocké 2013). The diets patients are consuming can be quantified according to a priori or posteriori methods to understand whether dietary characteristics contribute to nutritional risk. Understanding the risk caused by dietary patterns in the local context leads to formulation of cultural specific guidelines for interventional measures. DQ describes how well an individual's diet conforms to dietary recommendations whereas DPs are eating patterns derived from the population's food intake data (Alkerwi 2014; Ocké 2013).

Irrespective of the chosen dietary instrument, efforts should be made to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. The role of a qualified dietitian in performing dietary assessment is therefore paramount. Aids such as household measures, food models and pictures should be used to improve the portion size reporting accuracy. Surrogate information from caretakers may be obtained for patients who are unable to self-report. Underreporting of food intake is a common error in assessing dietary intake. Therefore, the Goldberg index (energy intake: basal metabolic rate ratio) can be used to identify mis-reporters to ensure the quality of the collected data. [4]

  References Top

Alkerwi, A. 2014. Diet Quality Concept. Nutrition 30(6): 613-618.  Back to cited text no. 1
Bross, R., Noori, N., Kovesdy, C.P., Murali, S.B., Benner, D., Block, G., Kopple, J.D. & Kalantar-Zadeh, K., 2010. Dietary assessment of individuals with chronic kidney disease. Seminars in Dialysis. 23(4):59-364.  Back to cited text no. 2
Mafra, D., Moraes, C., Leal, V.O., Farage, N.E., Stockler-Pinto, M.B. & Fouque, D., 2012. Underreporting of energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Renal Nutrition. 22(6):578-583.  Back to cited text no. 3
Ocké, M. C. 2013. Evaluation of Methodologies for Assessing the Overall Diet: Dietary Quality Scores and Dietary Pattern Analysis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 72(02): 191-199.  Back to cited text no. 4


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