Year : 2018 | Volume
: 4 | Issue : 2 | Page : 47-
Role of nutraceuticals and probiotics in chronic kidney disease
Consultant Registered Dietician and Certified Diabetes Educator, Nurture Health Solutions, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|How to cite this article:|
Salis S. Role of nutraceuticals and probiotics in chronic kidney disease.J Renal Nutr Metab 2018;4:47-47
|How to cite this URL:|
Salis S. Role of nutraceuticals and probiotics in chronic kidney disease. J Renal Nutr Metab [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 12 ];4:47-47
Available from: http://www.jrnm.in/text.asp?2018/4/2/47/247002
Chronic kidney disease is a common condition wherein dialysis and renal transplantation places an enormous pressure on the healthcare system. The increase in the incidences of diabetes mellitus and hypertension has largely contributed to a surge in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease.
The prognosis of dialysis patients is poor with 30 to 50 percent five year survival in patients without diabetes and 25 percent in those suffering from diabetes.
Kidney failure patients are susceptible to malnutrition, protein energy wasting and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Nutraceuticals and Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutraceuticals are defined as substances that have physiological benefits or provide protection against chronic diseases such as diabetes, renal disease, cancer, neurological and gastrointestinal disorders. These substances may be used to delay ageing process, improve health, increase life expectancy or support the structure and function of human body.
It comprises of food supplements, prebiotics and probiotics, dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals, herbal products and medical foods meant for prevention and treatment of disease. Since these nutraceuticals possess multiple therapeutic effects without undesirable effects, it attracts more consumer interest.
They are available in medicinal form such as capsule, tablet, or powder in a prescribed dose while more urban nutraceuticals are available as forms of food or included in foods or as complete food itself.
Research is ongoing regarding the nutraceutical agents that may aid in the prevention or delay in the onset of chronic renal disease.
A variety of nutraceutical products are being promoted as being able to support, protect and or heal renal injuries. However, research to support many of these claims is lacking.
The mechanisms by which these nutraceuticals may benefit patients with chronic kidney disease include – reduction of inflammation, modulation of oxidative stress, and inhibition of interstitial fibrosis, promotion of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and stimulation of tubular regeneration.
In addition to the unproven efficacy, individual nutraceuticals will have their own inherent toxicity and they may have adverse interactions with other drugs prescribed for renal disease.
Probiotics and Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), has a substantial impact on the affected individuals with an altered gut flora.
The use of probiotics in people with CKD is gaining momentum because altered gut micro flora affects the patient in a myriad of ways. Probiotics are bacteria-containing foods, such as milk and milk solids, yoghurt and kefir, that may favourably alter the floral composition of the gut through competition of one type of culture with another. The gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a multitude of different micro-organisms, the blend of which varies depending on the type of bacteria consumed.
The following are the benefits of Probiotics:
Suppression of growth or epithelial binding/invasion by pathogenic bacteriaImprovement of intestinal barrier functionModulation the immune systems.
At the forefront lies the gastrointestinal health and uremic toxin. An improved immune function and anti-inflammatory effect is strongly correlated with the health and the integrity of the gut. Increased use of medications that are prescribed at any given point of time to a patient with CKD or patient on dialysis creates havoc on his gastrointestinal system. Phosphorus binders may result in constipation while other medications may cause diarrhoea, heartburn, stomach-ache, vomiting and kill the good bacteria in the gut. Thus, probiotics may seem promising in helping restore the good bacteria in the gut and thereby improving immune function and providing anti –inflammatory effects.