Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism

ABSTRACT
Year
: 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 119-

Diet in kidney stone disease


Tanvi Dodecha 
 Dietician, P. D. Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:




How to cite this article:
Dodecha T. Diet in kidney stone disease.J Renal Nutr Metab 2018;4:119-119


How to cite this URL:
Dodecha T. Diet in kidney stone disease. J Renal Nutr Metab [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 22 ];4:119-119
Available from: http://www.jrnm.in/text.asp?2018/4/4/119/267191


Full Text



Medications in addition to a special diet may be enough to prevent further formation of kidney stones. Changing the amount of salt (sodium), calcium, oxalate, protein, citrate, potassium, and fluid in diet is recommended.[1],[2],[3]

Staying well hydrated by drinking enough water is one of the best measures to avoid kidney stones. This will help keep your urine less concentrated. Less-concentrated urine reduces the risk of stone formation. Most of the fluid you drink should be water. Water intake sufficient to increase urine volume to at least 2 L/day exerts an antilithogenic effect.[4],[5]

Calcium is not the enemy. If you have high calcium content in the urine, then sodium reduction is helpful for stone prevention. Instead of reducing calcium intake, focus on limiting the sodium in your diet and pair calcium-rich foods with oxalate-rich foods. Extra sodium causes to lose more calcium in urine. Limiting sodium to 3000 mg each day is recommended. There are many sources of “hidden” sodium such as canned or commercially processed foods as well as restaurant-prepared and fast foods.[6],[7],[8]

Calcium oxalate kidney stones are the leading type of kidney stones. Oxalate is naturally found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, grains, legumes, and even chocolate and tea. Some examples of foods that contain high levels of oxalate include peanuts, rhubarb, spinach, beets, chocolate, and sweet potatoes. The oxalate content of food can vary due to differences in things such as soil quality and state of ripeness. Less than 50 mg of oxalate in diet is recommended to avoid insoluble calcium oxalate stones.[6],[7],[8]

Some researches suggest that limiting high-oxalate foods may help reduce the chance of forming another oxalate stone. New research indicates that eating and drinking calcium- and oxalate-rich foods together during a meal is a better approach than limiting oxalate entirely because oxalate and calcium are more likely to bind to one another in the stomach and intestines before the kidneys begin processing, making it less likely that kidney stones will form.[6],[7],[8]

Another common type of kidney stone is a uric acid stone. Red meat and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural chemical compound known as purine. High purine intake leads to a higher production of uric acid which then accumulates as crystals in the joints, or as stones in the kidneys.

To prevent uric acid stones, cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish and follow a healthy diet that contains mostly vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. Limit sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, especially those that contain high fructose corn syrup. Limit alcohol because it can increase uric acid levels in the blood and avoid crash diets for the same reason. Eating less animal-based protein and eating more fruits and vegetables will help decrease urine acidity, and this will help reduce the chance for stone formation.[5],[6],[7],[8]

References

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8Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: New insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:3225-32.