image



image


image



image



image


image


image



image

image

image

due AIDS related complications. Eighty sixthousand (86000) new cases are added everyyear.

Prevalence of HBV and HCV

According to National Centre for Control of Disease (2001), in India the prevalence of HBV IS 3%, there are 4.0 crores carriers. 7.8 lacs people die due to HBV related complications . Ten lacs are always at risk for chronic hepatitis B.The Prevalence of HVC IS 1%, 1.22 lacs carrier state. Only 10- 30% people develop chronic hepatitis C, or hepatocellular carcinoma in 15-30 yearrs. WHO (200) report estimated 2.5% HIV, 40% HBV, 40% HCV cases m health care workers were due to related exposure. Studies have shown that knowledge and understanding of UPs were partial, and UPs compliance was suboptimal, only 32% wore

iillSHlH.CICU by

image

washing is the single most important activity to decrease the spread of infections of all kinds

Method of Hand Hygiene

Apply a sufficient amount of soap/cleaner to hands. Rub hands vigorously for 10-15 seconds, scrub between fingers, under nails, tops of hands and wrist.Washing with simple toilet soap - reduces the rate of transmission of common infections including the HBV, HCV and HIV.

Indications for Hand Washing

Indications for hand washing are prolonged contact with patient, before taking care of immune supressed, new born infants, patients in ICU / ICCU, dialysis units, bum's nnits, before and after touching wounds, when microbial

Touma! of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Vol 2 No 2 April- Tune 2016 Universal Precautions 6

image


contamination of hands is likely to occur when in contact with mucous membranes, body fluids, and other secretions contaminated with blood, and serousfluids.

What tobeusedforhandwashing

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image


image


image image image

image ..._ ,.., ,_.._,,, .. -..,,-,... -, n..,·...,,.., .,... -.,.,-O"f.V-llo•­


..,,,,..,,.,.,...n.,.0..,..,-,,..,,. ,_,.,.,.

••-•-'"'Y•• ,_......,.,...-. ,.

image


image


image image image

image ..._ ,.., ,_.._,,, .. -..,,-,... -, n..,·...,,.., .,... -.,.,-O"f.V-llo•­


..,,,,..,,.,.,...n.,.0..,..,-,,..,,. ,_,.,.,.

••-•-'"'Y•• ,_......,.,...-. ,.

Soap, and water are best antiseptics. Hand rub is not a substitute to hand washing. In most circumstances non medicated soaps and detergents are effective in removing most transient contaminants. In demanding circumstances, in handling potentially harmful infections, use ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. Detergent formulations containing chlorhexidine, povidone, or hexachlorophene are effective in prevention of spread of infections Figure 1 shows steps of hand washing.


image

image

Figure 1 Steps Of Hand Washing.

Use of Gloves: Use of a pair of disposable plastic gloves can protect if chances of contact with blood or body fluid is anticipated or inevitable.

Useofl\1ask,Cap,EyeWear

This protection will certainly protect from splashes of blood or body fluids. The importance of use of cap and mask should not be underestimated. It equally protects patients. Stringent use of mask and cap can save several lives in the hospital.

UP recommends the use of Personal Protective Equipment like gloves, aprons, gowns , protective eyewear, face shields, masks

Use Of Foot Wear:

Wearing foot wear covering entire sole protects the entry of microbes from the contaminated floors with blood and body fluids asmany of us have cracks onour feet.

While putting pressure to stop a bleeding wound, always wear gloves. Gloves should never be reused. Apply new bandage over bandage if saturated with blood

A simple thin plastic apron underneath the linen is of great help in preventing the soaking our inner clothes and exposure toharmfulmicrobes.

Universal Precautions also include: Proper handling and disposal of needles.

Taking precautions to prevent injury from scalpels, needles, and other sharp instruments.

Disposal of Needlesand Sharps

All used needles and sharps should be deposited in thick walled puncture resistant containers.Bending and reshaping, should be prohibited. Do not recap the needles to avoid needle stick injures. All used disposable syringes and needles should be discarded into bleach solution at the work station before final disposal.

Decontamination of Hospital Linen

All the linen contaminated with blood or body fluids should be soaked in 1: 100 bleach solution for 30 minutes. Autoclaving, is the most ideal procedu re for decontaminating linen

Blood borne pathogens cause Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV). Hepatitis B is transmitted byblood,unprotected sex, intravenous (IV) drug users, household contacts (sharing razors, toothbrushes, drinking after person) .It can be treated with medications and vaccine is available.

Hepatitis C is transmitted Primarily by blood

,unprotected sex, non-sterile tattoos, syringes, cuts, etc. Vaccine for this infection is not available therefore, it may be treated with medication if chronic hepatitis develops and causes liver damage.

HIV/AIDS is transmitted by blood or unprotected sex. No vaccine available. Following universal precautions suchas hand washing, proper handling and disposal of sharps/contaminated materials, cleaning/disinfecting after anycontact with blood can prevent transmission of infection. Personal protection barriers like gloves, masks, goggles, etcas needed should be used.

Importance of Vaccination in Hepatitis B Infection.

image

We have > 4.0 crore carriers with Hepatitis B infections. Every HCW is at risk of contacting infection. Vaccination is safe. Genetically engineered vaccination remains the great


I;f =-=i- :.: e!'.I: ,it!o; .1.., I

'

8- - 1"«.,·]

'EJ

I;f =-=i- :.: e!'.I: ,it!o; .1.., I

'

8- - 1"«.,·]

'EJ


hope for prevention, apart from major component of

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image

image


image image image


image image image image image image image


image image image image image image image


image image